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The IAR Nanomechanical Probe (NMP) was used in the depth sensing indentation mode to evaluate the Vickers hardness (HV) and elastic modulus E of five commercial TiN coatings applied to a 17-4 PH stainless steel substrate. The HV values of the TiN layers at depth to thickness (DTT) ratios of less than 0.1 varied between about 28 and 39 GPa, depending on the deposition process.http://www.nikeheaven.nu/ The elastic modulus was within the range of 300 to 400 GPa, corresponding to published values, at DTT ratios of less than or equal to 0.05. At higher DTT values, the elastic modulus decreased with increasing nike downshifter 7 DTT ratio due to larger and nike decades larger interference from the less rigid stainless steel substrate.

Depth sensing scratch tests were also performed on the samples to determine the critical load cr values needed to… cause spallation of the coatings. For each coating, the interfacial fracture toughness K ic was calculated from cr and used to describe the adhesive strength. Distinct differences between the K ic values of the different samples were observed, reflecting differences in adhesive strength. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of the application of titanium nitride coatings to gas turbine engines.

Abstract Sustainability is the latest buzzword across the globe that includes three aspects, namely the environment, economics, and society. With the emergence, acceptance, and obsolescence of fast fashion, textile wastes are growing to unprecedented levels at phenomenal rates.nikeheaven Textile wastes can be the raw materials for the developments of new value-added products through a proper recycling methodology. Textile waste management systems are currently undergoing a crucial phase, which aims to produce the value-added products through various recycling concepts and methods.